What is Diabetes?


Every person needs to understand “what is diabetes?” Diabetes is a metabolic condition characterized by high blood sugar levels. It can be of several types depending upon various factors. Mellitus is a type of diabetes in which an imbalance of pancreatic hormone occurs.

It is further divided into diabetes type-1 and diabetes type-2. Insipidus is a kind of diabetes that happens due to the imbalance of the pituitary hormone. A temporary type is termed as gestational diabetes, but it can be prolonged if not taken care of.

Generally, this is a long term disorder in which your blood glucose level is raised from the normal range leading towards complications.

There are two hormones in the pancreas known as glucagon and insulin. These hormones are produced from alpha and beta cells of the pancreas. Glucagon increases the blood sugar level when you are eating or fasting. It converts the carbohydrates from your food into glucose, and it also breakdowns the glycogen into glucose, thus in both conditions, blood sugar level is raised.

On the other hand, insulin is responsible for lowering your blood sugar level. When there is enough glucose in the bloodstream, beta cells release insulin, and this converts the glucose into stored form glycogen. This stored glycogen goes into the liver, muscles, and adipose cells.

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, and it has two types. 

One is type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). It is also called juvenile and accounts for 5-10% of total cases. It results from autoimmune destruction of beta cells that are responsible for producing insulin.

 In this condition, insulin is not produced by the body, and you must take it artificially.

 Its symptoms are increased infections, rapid onset weight loss, and fatigue. The peak incidence of type 1 is from 10-15 years of age.

The second type is diabetes type 2, also known as non-insulin dependent mellitus (NIDDM). It is also called adult-onset and accounts for 90-95%. It results from genetic and lifestyle complications.

 Insulin is produced from beta cells, but either it is insufficient or ineffectively used. Muscles are unable to deposit stored glucose, and your body becomes resistant to the insulin produced; thus, the blood glucose level is raised.

Common symptoms are blurry vision, dry, itchy skin, slow healing to wounds, fatigue increased thirst, and loss of feeling in feet. Usually, urine contains glucose in mellitus. The incidence of diabetes mellitus is 770 out of 100,000.

Diabetes insipidus is a rare condition in which a person has high blood glucose due to pituitary hormone imbalance. This hormone is known as vasopressin or anti-diuretic hormone.

The amount of water retained by your kidneys is determined by this hormone. A person suffering from this experiences excessive thirst and frequent, diluted urine. Symptoms are frequent headaches, extreme hunger, excessive thirst, and urination. The incidence of diabetes insipidus is 3 out of 100,000. Usually, no glucose is seen in urine tests.

Gestational is a type of diabetes in which a woman exhibits high blood glucose levels. This is temporary; Seven percent of pregnant women experience gestational, as eating patterns and behaviors are changed during this period.

Common symptoms are vomiting, fatigue, blurred vision, lack of will, and weight loss regardless of increased appetite.

If you have diabetes, you should know in which category you fall. Proper medication, lifestyle, and diet modification are required to limit blood glucose levels within a healthy range.

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