Cardiac illnesses are one of the leading causes of death worldwide and are known to result in approximately seventeen million deaths per year. Here are five of the most fatal cardiac disorders:
Coronary artery disease.
Also known as coronary heart disease (CHD), this disorder contributes to 15.6% deaths and caused 8.9 million deaths in 2015. Coronary arteries are blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the cardiac muscle. When narrowing of coronary arteries occurs due to atherosclerosis, or accumulation of fatty plaque, blood supply to the heart is impaired. This is caused mainly by hypercholesterolemia. Smoking and high blood pressure are the other causes. Symptoms of coronary artery disease include chest pain and shortness of breath. Complications like cardiac failure and abnormal heart rhythms may arise. Treatment includes a combination of medication along with a surgery known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).
Commonly known as heart attack, myocardial infarction is characterized by a sudden decrease in blood flow to a certain part of the cardiac muscle. Risk factors include hypertension, being overweight and lack of exercise. A person experiencing acute myocardial infarction endures symptoms such as recurrent chest pain, feeling faint and cold sweat. If not addressed immediately, myocardial infarction may lead to cardiogenic shock, during which complete dysfunction of the ventricles occurs. Cardiologists often prescribe medications such as aspirin and heparin. Some patients require percutaneous coronary intervention, which is a non-surgical procedure used to treat arterial stenosis (narrowing of arteries).
Consider Watching these videos if are suffering from heart diseases.
The term cardiomyopathy is defined as a group of illnesses of the cardiac muscle that cause the heart to become abnormally enlarged or stiffened. Types include hypertrophic, dilated and restrictive myopathies. Symptoms like hyperventilation and swelling of the legs may arise. In most cases, the cause remains unknown and cardiomyopathy is often described as idiopathic. However, research in cardiology reveals that the disease may be caused by excessive alcohol consumption or genetic links. Treatment options differ with the particular kinds of cardiomyopathy. Medication along with an implanted pacemaker help regulate the heart rate along with defibrillators and ventricular assist devices (VADs).
Pericarditis is the inflammation of the pericardium, the fibrous sac surrounding the heart, which is crucial in providing external protection to the heart and the presence of pericardial fluid allows effective lubrication for normal muscular contraction and relaxation of the cardiac muscle. Typical symptoms of pericarditis include sudden onset of sharp chest pain, palpitations, shortness of breath, fever and weakness. The most common causes are known to be viral or bacterial infection, tuberculosis and chest trauma. Pericarditis can lead to hazardous complications such as cardiac tamponade, during which excessive pericardial fluid builds up in the pericardial cavity. Pericarditis patients are often prescribed medications such as NSAIDs and corticosteroids.
Valvular heart disease
This kind of cardiac disorder mainly affects one or more valves of the heart. The four valves include the aortic and mitral valves on the left side of the heart and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right side. During valvular heart disease, stenosis or narrowing of the valve occurs resulting in insufficiency of the valve. The valve fails to perform normally and, as a result, regurgitation or backflow of blood occurs. These conditions are mostly caused by certain congenital anomalies (birth defects) or due to rheumatic heart disease. Cardiologists advise such patients to avoid smoking, alcohol consumption and antibiotics. Moreover, in severe cases a surgery involving valve replacement may be required.
It is crucial to prioritize heart health in order to prevent such fatal diseases in the near future.
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Team Doctor ASKY!